OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis is a bone infection that is usually caused by bacteria. Organisms that spread via the bloodstream or organisms that invade after a penetrating trauma or surgery can infect bone. Osteomyelitis can lead to bone deformity, and the tibia, femur, humerus, and vertebral bones are at highest risk. Acute osteomyelitis occurs mostly in children and adults with decreased immune function. It is treated with long courses of antibiotics, and sometimes by scraping away some of the infected bone.